2015). PubMed 2008; Araque et al. It is a diplococcus that sometimes forms chains, Gram-positive, microaerophilic, obligatory heterofermentative, producing d-lactate from glucose (along with CO2 and ethanol or acetate), acidophilic, and more tolerant to low pH than all other Leuconostoc species. 2014b). 2015), but this was not confirmed by isolating strains. 2012). Am J Enol Vitic 36:290–301, CAS 2012), and multilocus sequence typing (Delaherche et al. 1985). 2014a). The main role of O. oeni in winemaking is the deacidification of wine (Lonvaud-Funel 1999). 2015). J Biosci Bioeng 90:335–337, Solieri L, Genova F, De Paola M, Giudici P (2010) Characterization and technological properties of Oenococcus oeni strains from wine spontaneous malolactic fermentations: a framework for selection of new starter cultures. Google Scholar, Borneman AR, McCarthy JM, Chambers PJ, Bartowsky EJ (2012b) Functional divergence in the genus Oenococcus as predicted by genome sequencing of the newly-described species, Oenococcus kitaharae. PubMed Central 2008). These results provided the evidence of the potential role of the CE technique as an alternative cell‐whole method to characterize O. oeni diversity at the strain level, and in this case to determine the presence of high winery‐specific heterogeneity within O. oeni populations, and also to give further information, added to genotyping, about autochthonous bacteria for the enhancement of specific physicochemical conditions of wine. 2014; Cibrario et al. 2015). J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 23:447–455, Vigentini I, Praz A, Domeneghetti D, Zenato S, Picozzi C, Barmaz A, Foschino R (2016) Characterization of malolactic bacteria isolated from Aosta Valley wines and evidence of psychrotrophy in some strains. 2005). Phylogenetic groups A, B, C, and D are those defined in Lorentzen et al. Furthermore, they characterized previously unreported intraspecific genetic variations in the natural competence of this bacterium. In the past, O. oeni has been described as a relatively homogeneous species, and a variety of molecular approaches failed to clearly differentiate strains on a molecular level (Zapparoli et al. Very recently, the first bacterial consensus ‘pan‐chromosome’ of Acinetobacter baumannii was assembled independent of any pre‐assigned genome reference and identified both invariant (core) and variable (flexible) regions within the chromosome (Chan et al. Understanding the transcriptome is essential for interpreting the functional elements of the genome and revealing the potential survival strategies, as well as metabolic properties that enable O. oeni to effectively compete in the wine environment, exhibiting a vast research potential for further studies. PubMed Different genetic and phenotypic surveys have revealed considerable strain diversity within natural O. oeni populations associated with different types of wine and a correlation between such diversity and the peculiarity of certain oenological niches has also been supposed (Cappello et al. J Appl Bacteriol 59:239–242, Franquès J, Araque I, Palahí E, Portillo MC, Reguant C, Bordons A (2017) Presence of Oenococcus oeni and other lactic acid bacteria in grapes and wines from Priorat (Catalonia, Spain). 2008; Vigentini et al. 2017; Franquès et al. O. kitaharae possesses genes for production of bacteriocins and other antimicrobials, a CRISPR system to fight against phages and other defense genes that are hallmarks of a species that develops in a competitive environment where it must fight other microorganisms. 2009; Bridier et al. J Appl Microbiol 108:285–298, Stefanini I, Cavalieri D (2018) Metagenomic approaches to investigate the contribution of the vineyard environment to the quality of wine fermentation: potentials and difficulties. Int J Food Microbiol 123:171–176, Lechiancole T, Blaiotta G, Messina D, Fusco V, Villani F, Salzano G (2006) Evaluation of intra-specific diversities in Oenococcus oeni through analysis of genomic and expressed DNA. J Appl Microbiol 113:1087–1093, Zapparoli G, Reguant C, Bordons A, Torriani S, Dellaglio F (2000) Genomic DNA fingerprinting of Oenococcus oeni strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR. A remarkable example is the presence of strains belonging to two different genetic lineages which preferentially develop in the French white wines of Burgundy and Champagne or in the red wines of Burgundy (Campbell-Sills et al. 2017). The species was presumably detected in Spanish wine (Gonzalez-Arenzana et al. 2012; Napoli et al. 2000; Cappello et al. J Appl Microbiol 100:712–727, Article Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Google Scholar, Kelly WJ, Huang CM, Asmundson RV (1993) Comparison of Leuconostoc oenos strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. 2014; Bastard et al. Oenococcus oeni is crucial for winemaking, bringing stabilization, deacidification, and sensory impacts through malolactic fermentation (MLF) to most wine styles. - 184.108.40.206. The first genome sequence showed that O. oeni has a rare genetic characteristic: it is hypermutable due to the absence of the DNA mismatch repair system, MutSL, which most likely contributed to its rapid adaptation to the wine environment (Marcobal et al. Genome Biol Evol 7:1506–1518, Campbell-Sills H, El Khoury M, Gammacurta M, Miot Sertier C, Dutilh L, Vestner J, Capozzi V, Sherman D, Hubert C, Claisse O, Spano G, De Revel G, Lucas P (2017) Two different Oenococcus oeni lineages are associated to either red or white wines in Burgundy: genomics and metabolomics insights. 2006; Yanagida et al. 1988; Sánchez et al. In agreement, O. oeni is notoriously a slow growth species and it is rarely detected in the natural environment, where it is outcompeted by other species. The species was named “Leuconostoc oenos” owing to phenotypic similarities with Leuconostoc species. nov., a non-acidophilic and non-malolactic-fermenting Oenococcus isolated from a composting distilled shochu residue. This improves the microbiological stability of wine by removing potential substrates that harmful microorganisms could use to grow, while increasing the aromatic complexity (Davis et al. Although wine is its best known environment, O. oeni is also a predominant species in other fermented beverages such as cider or kombucha. The role of the cellar’s equipment has not been directly established, but it is possible to detect commercial strains in cellars where they have been used in the past, suggesting that they were present in the cellar or its immediate environment (Gonzalez-Arenzana et al. 1985). 2000; Reguant & Bordons 2003; Lechiancole et al. It has always been detected along with other LAB species (Salih et al. Numerous studies have shown that there is a great diversity of strains in each wine region and in each product or type of wine. However, each wine is different and more or less favorable to bacterial growth, which includes the growth of O. oeni. 2009; Bridier et al. The methods have revealed that there is a great diversity of strains in each region, several strains in each wine tank, and generally 2 to 6 major strains during MLF; that strains present in the vineyard at the surface of grapes contribute to MLF in wines produced from these grapes; that strains can persist in cellars for several years and thus contribute to MLF in wines produced during several consecutive vintages. O. oeni has long been the only known representative of the genus Oenococcus, although two other species were more recently identified (Fig. 2008; Yanagida et al. 2006; Quiros et al. 2005; Zapparoli et al. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome Benefits, Glycogenolysis, Glycolysis and Glycogenesis versus Wine, Endothelium: Red Wine Boosts Endothelial Progenitor Cells and nitric oxide, Heart Benefits supported by Strong Evidence, HDL, Coronaries and Arterial Plaque Modulator, Hormones, Fertility and Circadian Rhythms, Erectile Dysfunction, the Med Diet & Wine, Oenococcus oeni, Gut Diversity and Fitness, Platelet Aggregation Inhibition with Wine, Sexuality, Erectile Function, Fertility & Light Quality Wine, Wine & Saliva Modulate Bucal health and Teeth Regeneration, Wine Health Benefits: Type, Cru and Varietal, Corks that are tainted: 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole (TCA), Metformin or-and Dry Wine for Blood Sugar Control, Migraines or Headaches with Sulfites, Tyramine, Tannins, SNPs, Chemicals or too Much. Aust J Grape Wine R 11:174–187, Bartowsky EJ (2009) Bacterial spoilage of wine and approaches to minimize it. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:3969–3972, CAS Despite its inability to dominate other species in the natural environment, O. oeni has been able to become the main species in wine and one of the most important in cider, kombucha, and probably other fermented beverages.
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